What is Narrative ?
The physical position of the narrator determines what the narrator can see and therefore what the reader can see. This has particular relevance when a narrative is presented as a film. The position of the camera lens, the focalization, is critical for the viewers' interpretation of a scene.
Focalization is the presentation of a scene through the subjective perception of a character. The term can refer to the focalizer, the person doing the seeing or to the object that is being perceived. In literature focalization is established through narration in the grammatical first-person. In film, camera positions such as point-of-view shots, subjective shots and over-the-shoulder shots are combined with presentation of shots in specific sequences.
A point-of-view shot is a scene in a film that shows what a character is looking at. It is usually 'established' by positioning the point-of-view shot between a shot of a character looking at something, and a shot showing the character's reaction (a reverse shot).
In film, subjective treatment shots show events as if we see through the 'mind's eye' of the character. Such as shot may be used to portray a vision, a memory, or a hallucination.
An objective treatment of a scene presents what is before the camera in the diegesis of the narrative. 'Objective treatment' corresponds to 'third-person narration' in literature.
An over-the-shoulder shot includes part of that character's shoulder or the side of the character's head while showing the scene from the character's point-of-view.
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